Strong associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study
Background: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has been linked to mortality in several studies, but appropriate cutoffs to define risk categories are under debate.
Objective: We aimed to conduct a repeated-measurements analysis on the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality, with particular attention given to the shape of dose-response relations.
Design: Concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured in n = 9578 baseline and n = 5469 5-y follow-up participants of the ESTHER study, which is a German population-based cohort aged 50–74 y at baseline. Deaths were recorded during 9.5 y of follow-up (median).
Restricted cubic splines were used to assess dose-response relations, and Cox regression with time-dependent variables was used to estimate hazard ratios.